You must have heard about these two very popular models of instructional design – ADDIE and SAM Model. These are the most famous eLearning development solutions which are used for building eLearning solutions.
ADDIE stands for Analyze, Design, Development, Implement, and Evaluate and SAM stands for Successive Approximation Model.
In this article, we’ll discuss what a SAM model is, what is the difference between SAM and ADDIE model, what are the benefits of using the SAM model over the ADDIE model, and how to implement a SAM model in eLearning?
What Is a SAM Model?
To fix the issues faced in the waterfall design model, Allen Interactions introduced this new instructional design model- SAM. SAM instructional design approach consists of reiterated small steps that solve the major instructional design issues such as keeping in the budget, meeting timelines, to work in collaboration with subject experts.
Unlike ADDIE that gives no option but to simply follow instructions one by one, SAM promotes an environment of problem-solving. Before the real online course development, the whole process is being reviewed theoretically from start to end by a group. The group identifies any possible problems and creates possible solutions for them. If-else statement-based scenario templates get developed.
SAM is more recommended for the eLearning and IT domain. eLearning developers and learners both have independence in this type of model. It involves the following 3 stages in development of eLeaning solutions
- Preparation stage
- Iterative design stage
- Iterative development stage
What Is the Difference between SAM and ADDIE Model?
SAM and ADDIE are two different models of instructional design that are used for building an eLearning course. Knowing how these two models work will make it easy to understand the differences between them.
The ADDIE approach follows a waterfall approach in which every step is completed one by one. It follows a linear system which makes it easy to find out what went wrong just by getting one step back. It Also, it’s very flexible and can be used for different types of eLearning software. Based on a possible standard, it lets you track measurable results.
While ADDIE is linear and follows a straight path, SAM follows a cyclic repetitive process. The most important step in the SAM model is rapid prototyping and not much emphasis is given to the prep stage. The iterative structure of the Sam model helps in resolving problems easily without the need of restarting from scratch. The six stages of the SAM model work simultaneously which makes it easy to identify the issue in a particular stage and resolve it without going back. Moreover, it requires the collaboration of all the team members.
What Are the Benefits of Using SAM Model over ADDIE Model?
The linear approach of ADDIE creates some issues such as one cannot move to the next stage of development unless or until the current or previous stage is not completed first. Finding and correcting errors is very hard. Moreover, it is also considered more costly and time-consuming as compared to SAM.
Another big drawback of ADDIE is that if you don’t get the desired results or outcome at the end, you have to trace and make the changes from the start. Whereas, in a SAM model approach you will work on all the stages parallel and produce a prototype version of the product before the final phase. In this approach, you don’t have to wait till the end to see the final product and to see that it works according to your goals or not. Making changes and fixing errors in the content of eLearning is very easy in this approach. You can make as many corrections as you want until you don’t achieve your desired goals and objectives.
How to Implement a SAM Model in eLearning?
1. Gather Data and Set Goals
The first crucial step in the SAM model is to gather relevant data related to learning requirements, desired goals, and required training material. Also, you need to set very clear goals and learning objectives before moving to the next step. Like other instructional design approaches, you don’t have to spend a lot of time on long phases of analysis in the SAM model. All you have to do is to make your learning and development (L&D) team ready and provide all they need to start the next stages.
2. Study Your Audience
The next step in the preparation stage is to collect all the required data according to your goals, learning material, and detailed research of your audience. Evaluate already existing information, conduct surveys, assess the measurements of LMS, and involve SMEs to get their guidance, regarding the eLearning content and other activities. Study your audience persona, learn about their needs, pains and find out how you can address and help them to solve them.
3. Plan and Build the Design
In the third step, you need very detailed planning to create an efficient design process. Discuss the ideas in detail with your L&D team and choose the best ones with the recommendation of your team. Define roles and assign tasks accordingly for smooth execution of work.
This phase is known as the iterative design phase. This stage is all about planning, designing, implementing a polished version of the software, and reviewing it for any required improvements. All these tasks will be performed in parallel. And at the end of each cycle check your prototype for any flaws or improvements, make the changes and again begin from the initial steps of the cycle to improve the eLearning content.
4. Create Multiple Stages for Design and Evaluation
In the SAM model, the product or software needs to be tested in three rounds before the final launch. The first stage is called Alpha in which the initial level of development and evaluation is done. The second stage is Beta which revolves around testing and making necessary amendments. Almost all the required design, tasks, and processes are arranged and set at this stage. Finally, the third stage which is called the Gold testing stage helps us reach the final version of our product. This version is supposed to be error-free and almost ready to be launched.